Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and is associated with the aging process. Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that causes the deterioration of cartilage within a joint. For most people, the cause of osteoarthritis is unknown, but metabolic, genetic, chemical and mechanical factors play a role in its development. Symptoms of osteoarthritis include loss of flexibility, limited movement, and pain and swelling within the joint. The condition is the result of a cartilage injury, which normally absorbs stress and covers the bones, so they can move without problems. The cartilage of the affected joint becomes rough and wears out. As the disease progresses, the cartilage wears out completely and the bone rubs against the bone. Bony spurs usually develop around the margins of the joint. Part of the pain results from these bone spurs, which can restrict the movement of the joint as well. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from the rupture of the articular cartilage and the underlying bone. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms can occur only after exercise, but over time they can become constant. Other symptoms may include swelling of the joints, decreased range of motion and, when the back is affected, weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The joints most commonly involved are those near the extremities of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, the neck, the lower part of the back, the knee and the hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other side. Usually, symptoms appear over the years. It can affect work and normal daily activities. Unlike other types of arthritis, only joints are affected. Causes include previous joint injury, abnormal development of joints or limbs, and inherited factors. The risk is higher in those who are overweight, have a leg of different length and have jobs that result in high levels of stress in the joints. It is believed that osteoarthritis is caused by mechanical stress on the joint and low-grade inflammatory processes. It develops as the cartilage is lost and the underlying bone is affected. Because pain can make exercise difficult, muscle loss can occur. The diagnosis is usually based on signs and symptoms, with medical images and other tests used occasionally to support or rule out other problems. Unlike rheumatoid arthritis, which is primarily an inflammatory condition, in osteoarthritis, the joints usually do not warm up or redden.
The treatment includes exercise, efforts to reduce stress on the joints, support groups and analgesics. Efforts to decrease joint stress include rest and the use of a cane. Weight loss can help overweight people. Analgesics may include paracetamol (paracetamol) as well as NSAIDs such as naproxen or ibuprofen. The use of long-term opioids is generally discouraged due to the lack of information about the benefits and risks of addiction and other side effects. If pain interferes with normal life despite other treatments, joint replacement surgery can help. An artificial joint usually lasts 10 to 15 years.
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis with knee and hip disease that affects approximately 3.8% of people as of 2010. Among those over 60, approximately 10% of men and 18% of women are affected. It is the cause of approximately 2% of the years lived with disability. In Australia, about 1.9 million people are affected, and in the United States, between 30 and 52.5 million people are affected. It becomes more common in both sexes as people get older.
The main symptom is pain, which causes loss of ability and often stiffness. "Pain" is usually described as a sharp pain or a burning sensation in the associated muscles and tendons, and is usually worsened by prolonged activity and relieved by rest. Stiffness is most common in the morning and typically lasts less than thirty minutes after starting daily activities, but may return after periods of inactivity. Osteoarthritis can cause a crackling noise (called "crepitus") when the affected joint is moved or touched and people may experience muscle spasms and contractions in the tendons. Occasionally, the joints may also be filled with fluid. Some people report an increase in pain associated with cold temperature, high humidity and / or a drop in barometric pressure, but studies have had mixed results. Osteoarthritis commonly affects the hands, feet, spine and large joints that support weight, such as the hips and knees, although in theory, any joint in the body can be affected. As osteoarthritis progresses, the affected joints appear larger, stiffer, more painful, and may swell, but generally they feel better with mild use, but they get worse with excessive or prolonged use, which distinguishes them from rheumatoid arthritis.
Osteoarthritis is the most common cause of joint effusion of the knee. Sometimes called degenerative joint disease or degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition of the joints.
Video credits to AniMed YouTube channel